Archive | Paganism RSS feed for this section

Tysnes, Norway- Njord, Nerthus, Tyr

10 Jul

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Tysnes is a collection of islands within the Hardanger Fjord in western Norway. Its name and its former name reveal roots in a pagan past, partly shrouded in mystery. Here can be found an old stone altar in Todneset, as well as the Vevatn which is thought to be home to a location used to worship Njord and possibly Nerthus during the pre-Christian heathen times. The small piece of the island “nes”, in Norwegian, named for Tyr was originally just referred to as Tysnes (Tyr’s nes), while the rest was called Njardarlaug.

The name change came about around 1530, at the time of the reformation of the Christian religion. The name Njardarlaug was seen as “too heathen” and so the name was changed to (ironically enough) another heathen name, Tysnes. This could cause one to conclude that Njarthar and Njord played an especially strong role in the pre-christian life on the island to prompt this name change. Christianity was known to erase what was not fitting its worldview. If the role of Tyr was lesser known, then the name was somehow more “innocent” than the previous name. It also makes one wonder just how important the island was to the pre-christian heathens of the time. Did it serve a role for people beyond those who lived on the island? Did other Scandinavians and other foreigners pay a visit to this island? Was the memory of rituals and worship of pagan gods so strong in connection to the name “Njardarlaug” that it had to be erased, even while taking another (yet less prominent and recognizable) pagan name? One could conclude those in charge of the name change were either stupid, or looking for a more subtle, lesser known and less notorious name. If the cult of Tyr was less important in the people’s memory than that of Njord and Nerthus, then this could very well have been the reason for the island being re-named “Tysnes”.

As Tysnes was just a small piece of the island, the entire island itself was called Njardarlaug which is most striking in its apparent tribute to the Nordic god Njord or the goddess Njarthar/Nerthus. Another explanation for its name came from Eivind Vågslid who said that it referred to a “tronge farvatn”, a tightly compressed waterway or small, narrow waterway which separates the island from the mainland. The waterway is indeed small enough to easily accommodate a bridge of 316 meters, but were our forebears so boring as to only think in terms of naming their island after a span of water? And is 316 meters wide of water really such a tight fit for boats in the previous ages?  It seems unlikely considering the abundance of other locations in Norway and other parts of Scandinavia which feature Nordic gods in their names, such as Tysnes (Tyr’s nes) right here in the area, Torheim (Thor’s home), Baldrheim, (Balder’s home), Odense (in Denmark, Oden’s lake). Lauga (log) is a reference to water.” Njardarlaug “ would in turn refer to Njord/Njarthar’s water. “Njord sitt kultiske bad”. With the presence of the standing stone in Todneset, as well as the altar (and the fact that the later Christian church used by the community was built on the location of Todneset- Christian churches were often built on powerful formerly pagan places of worship) the island was of some significance going deeper than mere geography: spiritual and pagan thought and deed were clearly at home here in pre-christian times which has survived in the form of names and stone relics.

Tysnes was formerly called Njardarlaug which etymologically relates to Njord, but some speculate that this is a more direct reference to the goddess Njarthar, or Nerthus. Njord is the Nordic god of the sea, father to Frey and Freyja. Njarthar is most commonly referred to as Nerthus, and is a goddess of the earth with connections to Njord. In the Heimskringla, it is mentioned that Frey and Freyja were the offspring of Njord and his sister. It follows to speculate that this could be Njarthar. In this way, Njarthar is a goddess of the land with connections to the sea. The island of Njardarlaug (Tysnes) also features the two elements of land, and sea within itself.

In particular, the lake of Vevatn is thought to be a place where offerings were made to Njarthar or Njord or both. As the shores of this lake also represent the union between land and sea, we could again make the connection between an earth goddess and a sea, or watery god. In heathen times, such elemental connections would not be lost on a people whose existence is dependent upon nature and the bounty of sea and land.

Also the children of Njord and possibly Njarthar are fertility gods, the twins Frey and Freyja. Water and earth are essential for the growing of crops and as such it would follow to reason that a water god and earth goddess produce divine offspring which symbolize and incorporate fertility.

One of the most distinct remnants of this pagan past is found in just this small section of the island that can rightfully be called Tyr’s nes. This is known as Todneset. This is the site of a standing stone, not far from which a relatively small dug-out area with an altar is located. The location is just 25 meters from the sea. The mound of land (røysa) on which all of this rests has a view of the bay of the island Våge to the west, and a view of the Bjørnafjord in the northwest. The altar was dug up in 1915 and what could possibly be seen as the remnants of offerings were found. These items included knives, nails, iron tools, the bones and skulls of animals. The altar was probably part of a more complex building, according to the findings the researchers in 1915 unearthed. The area is also interesting from the perspective that every year, on the winter solstice, the sun disappears behind the mountains in the distance  to return for a brief period to shine on top of the standing stone once more. This is the only time of year this phenomena occurs. As this is a naturally unusual area, special in this respect, it is easy to see why the heathen ancestors thought this was a special place fitting for worship.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

On Tysnes, there exists a place called the Lunde (grove) not far from Vevatn. Vevatn is speculated to have been used for spiritual purposes, and if we take the following quote by Tacitus (Germania)  we can infer that, perhaps he was referring to Tysnes : “None of these tribes have any noteworthy feature, except their common worship of Ertha, or mother-Earth, and their belief that she interposes in human affairs, and visits the nations in her car. In an island of the ocean there is a sacred grove, and within it a consecrated chariot, covered over with a garment. Only one priest is permitted to touch it. He can perceive the presence of the goddess in this sacred recess, and walks by her side with the utmost reverence as she is drawn along by heifers. It is a season of rejoicing, and festivity reigns wherever she deigns to go and be received. They do not go to battle or wear arms; every weapon is under lock; peace and quiet are known and welcomed only at these times, till the goddess, weary of human intercourse, is at length restored by the same priest to her temple. Afterwards the car, the vestments, and, if you like to believe it, the divinity herself, are purified in a secret lake. Slaves perform the rite, who are instantly swallowed up by its waters.” Tysnes (Njardarlaug) is an “island of the ocean”, which contains a grove (Lunde), and nearby there is a lake. The lake was said to be used for the purposes mentioned by Tactitus, in pagan times, so the elements are present to infer that Tacitus was in fact referring to the island and her inhabitants at the time. Freya could possibly have been the “earth goddess” mentioned, as her worship was widespread throughout the Germanic lands.

Since much of our pagan past is buried in misinformation and poor documentation, we can but speculate and let our imaginations run free in regards to just what went on there on the mystical island of Njardalaug. How did the heathens there worship exactly? How did they feel toward their gods? How was the returning of the sun on the solstice of importance to them? What did they think and feel ? Surely it was more deeply rooted in a cosmic sense than our own limited, materialistic thoughts today. We can let our minds run free, and visiting the site tune into the atmosphere of the place which is indeed distinct from the surrounding areas.

A sacred grove. The sun rising on the winter solstice over Todneset. Rituals and offerings to Tyr at the location of that mound. Watery offerings, invocations and prayers to the water Njord and Njerthus at Vevatn, to the honoring of their fertility offspring Frey and Freyja in times of harvest and planting . The connection between earth, sea and sky in the daily thoughts of those who inhabited the region. What we know from the names and the findings on the island today called Tysnes, we see the remnants of a rich world that is nearly forgotten which connected the material, outer world, with the spiritual, energetic and inner world. There is much to learn with logic, and much to consider and feel with the intuition. The past and the future can combine with the present as we take such mystical places and ponder them and try to see with the eyes of our ancestors.

The Vanir- Æsir War

3 Apr

scaled_svolder

Should the conflict between the two groups of nordic gods be considered a reflection of a historic event or a portrayal of the shift of the people of the north, or both?

Was this war between the mainly fertility-concerned Vanir and the more battle-ready Æsir reflecting the invasion of outsiders to a more peaceful people?

It is a complex topic to consider, and to begin to contemplate the possibilities of a time where war was, in fact, not the law and the norm of life for people.

The book series, The Ringing Cedars of Russia, by Vladimir Megre, describes the Vedic Russians, a group that is little known by history, and surely not learnt about in school. The Vedic Russians were deeply spiritual, according to Megre, and cultivated their food as they cultivated their connection with the earth and the universe, and the one united force we could call God (the universal consciousness). The connection the Vedic Russians had with nature was at the same time their connection with all of life, and with the prime spiritual force in life. They ate no meat, as there was an abundance of plant life readily available to them and they were able to communicate closely with animals which caused a natural bond, the animals surrounding them were something like pets, so they of course could not kill them.

These people were not interested in war, but if invaders came, they could easily fend them off. They could think quickly, and had spiritual powers that modern man has long since lost.

Were the people of the north as similarly connected to the earth, to the plants, to the animals? Were they slowly invaded and caused to evolve to adopt a less nature based approach?

War and the warrior have been revered by modern man, and civilizations as long as history has recorded. We think war is the only way. Indeed, it is correct to be ready to stand up for oneself, to defend one’s people, to put obstacles out of the way. But mankind’s purpose is not to bloodthirstily rip up other people. The soul, the deeper spiritual aspect of all people longs for a peace, a unity and sense of comfort. This is in fact, a strength-not a weakness. Seeking conflict leads to a never ending cycle of conflict.

Especially among the people of the north, where the revival of interest in the pagan legacy of the north has sparked, it is the war-like vikings one usually first thinks of. The Hammer of Thor is  a strong symbol to wear, to invoke and evoke strength, daring and protection: all very good things. We have to be ready to defend ourselves if need be.

That said, admiring plundering, thieving, perpetual war is not a way to a more developed spiritual being. One only lives by “might is right”, instead of weighing justice and truth as principles that should be lived by- no matter who has the stronger arm.

Revering only the blood-thirsty will only lead to more conflict. If we want to live a sustainable life for ourselves, and our children, we have to put ourselves on the road to a sustainable future that is based on a closeness, an intimacy and appreciation with the earth. A bond with the finer things in life, an appreciation for the defenceless, for the intuition, for art, for aesthetics, and the very practical act of cultivating food for oneself- which leads to freedom and to possibly, if done in harmony with the earth (organic, permaculture) a deeper spiritual connection can be cultivated.

We can learn many things from both the Vanir and Æsir. We know that death is an inevitable part of life- but seeking the death of another is not necessary. If one does this for the furthering of one’s material status in life, one is living against the harmony of nature. Defending oneself is necessary. Living justly is necessary. Seeking out and finding a bond with the spirit and nature is necessary. Otherwise we simply only continue to live in the materialistic, utterly distanced from the spirit society we find ourselves in today.

Seidr

28 Mar

seidfrau

Seidr is a norse pagan practice of magic related to shamanism. Since we know very little of it, we can speculate and revise and revive it however we feel intuitively compelled to do so.

Some might see the practice of Seidr in the hypnotic chanting around a fireplace. Voices raise together in song to invoke a particular energy. Others go into deep trances to seek answers and healing, much like native shamans practice around the world still today. Others see Seidr in the ritual invocation of the gods of the north. Still others might see Seidr as part of their practice with runes.

An interesting feature of the word Seidr could lie in its etymological roots. The word is perhaps related to the German term “Saite”, which means string or cord. The term “silver cord” is known in the esoteric school of thought as the cord which connects the spiritual, etheric self which wonders the astral realm to the body, so that the astral body may return safely. Does this term have something to do with that?

Did early Seidr practitioners astrally travel to seek answers and healing? They probably did, if we compare them with the native cultures that practice shamanism today. Before modern medicine existed, people went to healers in order to get well. The healers had to seek answers in the spiritual realm to treat their patients appropriately. Manly P Hall writes in his book, “The Secret Teachings of the Ages” that native shamans would put themselves into a trance state, and then walk the forest seeking answers. When  a particular plant began to glow, the shaman knew that this was the correct plan to use in treatment for the person who had come to them. Many folk medicines are known in the greater Germanic region. In Germany, St. John’s Wort has been used for a long time, as many other herbs have been. How did they get the knowledge that this plant could have a healing effect?

Seidr is also associated with women, although men sometimes also practised it. Women are usually thought of in the Indo-European regions, to have been the ones gathering the herbs, making the medicines that the villagers sought. They were usually the ones thought of as “witches” and burnt or hung during the witch hunts which took place throughout Europe. Why? They were seen as wielding dangerous magic.

It was Freyja who taught Oden, the shamanic god of sacrifice, Seidr. What exactly did she teach him? Here, we also see a woman in the main role of passing on the wisdom of a deep, esoteric practice.

Whatever we choose to interpret into the word “Seidr” there remains much to know, whether we are reading about others’ experience and interpretation of the practice, or whether we are using the inspiration that the word sparks to delve deeper into our own hidden realms. We can gain more insight by going inwards than we can by looking to the outer world for answers, so surely the key to understanding the shaman is to go inward.

The many faces of Freyja

11 Nov

 Bilete

Freyja is the nordic goddess of love. She is also associated with war, life, death, rebirth. Her name means “lady” , and as such, is heavily connected with the feminine principle, the divine feminine. “Freyja” is the old-nordic name for this goddess, and other names which are in use today include Freya, Frejya, Freyia, Frøya, Frøjya, Freja and Freia. In Norway, the most common name for the goddess today is Frøya. In Sweden, she is referred to as Freja or Fröja. In Iceland, the old-norse name prevails, she is still called Freyja there.

 

As many names she has, as many faces. Some speculate as to whether she is one and the same as the goddess Frigg, or Frigga. Indeed, both are strongly feminine archetypes concerned with matters of love and birth. Freyja now, is perhaps more seen as an adventurous, risqué type whereas Frigga is seen more as a noble housewife, to her husband Oden.  But this polarization seems to me more a product of christian influence on the nordic mentality.

 

It would be easy to lump Freyja together with Mary Magdalene, who is viewed by christians as a sort of divine whore. In Snorri’s, and other post-christianization authors’ telling of various nordic legends, Freyja is told to have slept with four dwarves in order to obtain her impressive necklace the Brisingamen. This is a whorish endeavour just to obtain a material object, and for an ancient pagan god, seems a questionable thing to do. Many attribute this action to a symbolic ritual of sorts, where the dwarves should symbolize the four directions, north, south, east, west, as a completion of the turning of the wheel. Perhaps we must not take this act too seriously. Is the essence of this goddess a sort of sexual promiscuity for favours? Is she really such a whore?

At any rate, she is replaced in the mindset of the nordic people as a witch, and a promiscuous woman.

 

The goddess Frigga is seen as the ideal housewife, in christian retellings. She also knows the fate of all people, and has the glow of a true deity, of the true divine. She is pure and all-knowing, mercyful and respectable. It seems, this archetype and that of the virgin Mary could easily be melded one into the other.

 

Now, the critical mind must ask, “did these similarites happen because the christians found a way to graft these archetypes together, or did Snorri tell the old stories in a less than favourable way in order to make paganism less attractive and christianity more attractive?” We also must remember, these stories may be among the little recorded word we have on these gods, but we must not accept them as the final word. Christianity changed Europe forever. In the place of nature religions, comporable with the nature-harmonious lifestyle of that of the Native Americans, there was now a dominate-servitude religion in its place. Whereas before, the gods and goddesses were all around, in nature and within the human himself, divinity was now confined to a master structure: the priest, bishop, etc. If you wanted to pray, you needed the approval of some outside human. This removed the natural order of things and replaced it with a hierarchy, and an unnatural one.

 

Since this time, there has also been the dogmatization and redefinition of sex and love. They are no longer seen as parts of the same whole, by the masses, but by separate and exclusive things. Media and judeo-christian religion have separated the sensual and sexual nature of love, and reduced sex to a “sinful” act, or one only fueled by the need for “procreation” (as now science separate from spirituality would also define it)

 

Nature spirituality recognizes the connection of all things, that nature and mankind are part of each other, and that the gods are man and man are the gods. Redefining gods and archetypes for selfish means is akin to attempted control over mankind. If “god” is one omnipotent man in the sky, independent of the feminine principle, there will be no balance within the collective consciousness. The scales only tip toward the masculine, and at the same time, men suffer. They are not “allowed” to be real men, since the masculine principle is the “one god” in the sky. Atheists would have you worship science or the material, and the controlling elite would have you worship money and live in fear. If you find both the masculine principle and the feminine principle within nature, and within you, you can balance these forces appropriately, and recognize them for what they are.

 

We must take the nordic gods for their essence, and not for the details in their accounts. Find your own intuitive connection to them. Freyja is not exclusively sensual, she is a devoted wife to Od. And if she is simply another face of Frigga, then she also knows the web of fate woven for all of us, and is the mistress of wyrd, or destiny. She is sexually charged, but full of love. She misses her husband terribly, and searches for him. What energies lie behind these notions? Does this resonate as true, or is perhaps Freyja’s essence best captured when meditating quietly next to the femininely powerful birch tree?  She is the mistress of Seidr, of the intuition, of trance-induced vision quests. She is a shaman and a warrior. She is love and of sex. These are parts of the same whole. When they are reintegrated to the collective consciousness for their ESSENCE then, the nordic spirit will regain balance,and with it the collective spirit of all mankind.

 

Find what personal connection you have to the gods. Question everything. Don’t accept Snorri as the one authority, nor any one else. There are many pagan writers out there, read them, question them, look them up, debate with them, forge new bonds, make new contacts, be creative, be thoughtful and continue on your quest for truth. No one else can know your personal truth but you.

 

Bilete